Bunker Hill Community College

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Library's Annual Reports

Bunker Hill Community College
Library & Learning Commons

Annual Report FY18


Vivica Pierre, MLIS, PhD, Director & Head Librarian

BHCC Library & Learning Commons


Table of Contents


Library Mission and Vision

Alignment of Library’s Mission with College Mission

 AR 2010
 AR 2018

Historical context

Meet the Staff/Library


Library Statistics & Analysis for Decision-Making


FY19 Goals

Aligning Library’s Mission and Purpose with College Mission

Annual Report FY18



College Mission, Vision and Values


Mission of Bunker Hill Community College

Bunker Hill Community College serves as an educational and economic asset for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by offering associate degrees and certificate programs that prepare students for further education and fulfilling careers. Our students reflect our diverse local and global community, and the College integrates the strengths of many cultures, age groups, lifestyles and learning styles into the life of the institution. The College provides inclusive and affordable access to higher education, supports the success of all students, and forges vibrant partnerships and pathways with educational institutions, community organizations, and local businesses and industries.

Vision of Bunker Hill Community College

Bunker Hill Community College empowers and inspires students, faculty, and staff diverse in identities, experiences and ideas to make meaningful contributions to our local and global communities. The College embodies a spirit of inquiry, critical thought, inclusive excellence, and lifelong learning.

BHCC Institutional Values

Bunker Hill Community College Trustees, Faculty, Staff and Students embody the highest academic and institutional integrity through their commitment to:

  • Access and Success
  • Excellence and Innovation
  • Economic and Social Justice
  • Inclusiveness and Equity
  • Civic Engagement and Service
  • Kindness and Respect
  • Accountability and Transparency

Found at: https://www.bhcc.edu/library/about/librarysmissionvisionandcorevalues/

BHCC Library & Learning Commons Mission & Vision

Library & Learning Commons Mission & Vision

The mission of Bunker Hill Community College Library & Learning Commons is to support teaching excellence and diverse learning in the community college setting, and to provide facilities to support a variety of learners and learning styles; to provide library resources and services which support the BHCC community; to encourage academic achievement, student success, and lifelong learning; and to enhance the education environment.

Found at https://www.bhcc.edu/library/about/librarysmissionvisionandcorevalues/

Archives Mission & Vision

The Archives are the repository of official college records for Bunker Hill Community College, charged with identifying, collecting, preserving, and making available for research and reference College records of enduring historical value.

The primary purpose for collecting such records is to document the history and development of Bunker Hill Community College since its foundation in 1973, and, in particular, to provide documentation of its teaching, learning, and research functions; the activities of its diverse student body and alumni; its role in the state of Massachusetts and the community at large; and its place in American higher education and workforce development.

 The goals of the BHCC Archives are:

  • To ensure the long-term preservation and storage of historical records pertaining to Bunker Hill Community College.
  • To efficiently manage its collections.
  • To continually improve access to and encourage the use of collections by the College, the community, and interested researchers.

Found at https://www.bhcc.edu/library/institutionalarchives/archivesmission/

Introduction and Historical Context.

In 1974, John J. Hawkins served as the Director and Head Librarian. At that time the library was located in a temporary space on the second floor of Building B and contained a large collection of volumes of books, journals, magazines and newspapers. Linda Weinstein, served as Assistant Librarian. 

By the 1990s, the collection had grown to about 40,000 volumes. Linda Weinstein served as the Director and Head Librarian. Her vision included, “The Library is the center for study, research and bibliographic instruction.” The collection contained 40,000 volumes, 350 periodicals and was augmented by newspapers and CD-ROM databases. In addition, The Library was a member of NOBLE, which provides students with online access to the collections of materials from a network consisting of 7 academic and 17 public libraries and to the Internet through access menus specifically designed to expand reference and research capabilities.  Diane M. Smith served as Librarian Assistant II and Svetlana Ordian served as the Library Cataloger.

Diane Smith succeed Linda Weinstein as the Director and Head Librarian. Dian’s vision included, “The Library is the center for study, research and bibliographic instruction.” The collection continued to grow to about 53,000 volumes, 335 periodicals and was augmented by 150 full-text journals.

By the early 2000s, the collection contained 58,000 volumes, 335 periodicals and was augmented by 1500 full text journals. The Library began delivery of Information Literacy workshops as well as one-on-one instruction sessions, and the needs of distance and non-traditional students were addressed through the beginnings of the library’s web page and virtual resources.

Enzo Surin served as Library Assistant, III. and provided leadership including “The Library and Learning Commons delivers services crucial for student success, including information literacy instruction, quality resource selection, and an academic learning atmosphere,” (2008).

In 2011, the collection consisted of about 100,000 print volumes that included books, magazines, newspapers and journals. The library’s memberships included NOBLE, LYRASIS, the Massachusetts Library System and OCLC. Elizabeth Fields, Andrew McCarthy, Svetlana Ordian, and Cecilia Roberts served as Coordinators of Library Services.

In 2012, Vivica Pierre, J.D., M.L.I.S., Ph.D. began service at Bunker Hill Community College as the Director and Head Librarian.  Guided by the Five Laws of Library and Information Science, by the American Library Association, and by the Association of American Community Colleges

Vivica sees the potential for the Bunker Hill Community College’s Library & Learning Commons
as the ideal modern community library.

A library is more than book stacks or shelves in the library where materials-typically books-are stored. The library in the digital age should be both a place and an experience; where a person who uses the library resources, services, or facilities have access to available information resources using more than one media, anytime and anywhere.  Students and others can experience discovery through text and physical information resources like books.

Students and others should be able to experience the joy of research and writing in one of the many purposively designed spaces in the library. And they should be able to experience the past, present and future through the library’s resources both physical and digital including digital archives and digital repositories created by the Library.

The library should incorporate artworks by students, faculty, and local/regional artists. And then people potentially can better explore, discover and discuss some of the difficult sometimes even turbulent issues of the past and present like Racism, Gender Inequality, Homelessness, Illiteracy, Poverty, and other urgent social justice issues of our time.

To this end, the Library & Learning Commons should be a place and an experience that inspires --students, faculty, librarians, staff and others-- to imagine the possibilities!

BHCC Library and Learning Commons Mission Statement:

The Annual Report for FY10 provides the following library’s mission statement:

The BHCC Library & Learning Commons is an academic independent learning opportunity; it is a place for the lifelong learner where personal, social, and empirical investigation are fueled by curiosity, critical  thinking, speculation, exchange, analysis and communication.

In 2013 and with the support of the Library Committee, Dr. Pierre revised the library’s mission statement and it reads as follows:

Library Mission Statement

The mission of Bunker Hill Community College Library & Learning Commons is to support teaching excellence and diverse learning in the community college setting, and to provide facilities to support a variety of learners and learning styles; to provide library resources and services which support the BHCC community; to encourage academic achievement, student success, and lifelong learning; and to enhance the education environment.


2014-2015 Highlights

  • Increased Subscription and Memberships (databases)
  • Increased Library Teaching Materials (Books, physical and e-books)
  • New purchase for Software & Information Tech License:  for purchase of Spring Share (LibGuides) and Past Perfect (Archives)
  • New funds for Special Digitization Project
  • New funds for Professional Development for Librarians

2015-2016 Highlights

  • Transform the Library's physical space to create an inviting, effective environment for learning, study and reflection. 
    a. Decreased the physical collection by 1/3 of the physical book collection
    b. Added LED lighting in the computer student area
    c. Acquired six (6) more carrels and six chairs (6) to increase capacity for student seating.
  • Expand outreach and instructional programs

a. Hired one new part-time librarian to help meet the need for more Information Literacy workshops
b.  Collaborated with Academic Technology, BHCC Online, TliTC, IT, Facilities and other institutional leadership to fully integrate the library resources and services in particular BHCC librarians in all discussions related to academic technology and support of teaching and learning

c. Library design to move the BHCC Library & Learning Commons to an educational and cultural hub at the College.

2017-2018 Highlights

          In the Annual Planning and Projection for 2017-2018, the library’s goals were stated as follows:

  • Goal #1: Making Student Success an Imperative through the library’s active role in extending Information Literacy instruction at both the Charlestown and Chelsea campuses. The Library anticipate continued collaboration and communication with: Dean of Mathematics, Behavioral & Social Sciences, Dean of Students, Dean of Academic Support & College Pathway Programs, and the Dean of Humanities & Learning Communities to grow deeper awareness among and between chairs in departments and units about the Library’s Information Literacy and Frameworks for Higher Education Initiatives to Support Student Success ().
  • Goal #2: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning
    The Library anticipates to advocate and continue the Library’s role in the scholarship of teaching and learning. Further, the Library anticipates to continue to support discipline-specific professional development in the English and ESL departments to develop pedagogical content knowledge; continue to provide leadership for Museum of African American History, Asian American Studies, and Latino Studies Institutes to spread research-based, learner-centered, culturally inclusive curricula and pedagogical practice across the disciplines; provide leadership for the Open Educational Resources (OER) Degree Initiative.
  • Goal #3: Collection Development; focus on Careers and STEAM areas including e-resources and software.  The Library anticipates and projects that it will continue to advocate for Careers and STEM resources as a major goal of library’s collection development plan.  Driven by student and faculty-demand the Library’s further goal is to continue advocacy for new books in Careers and the STEM fields as well to acquire new Chemistry software ($10K) in 2017-2018.  Further, our librarians continue to anticipate that in FY16- FY17 (FY18) that our librarians will continue effective collaboration with the Office of Grants, Perkins’ Grants to acquire new books on Careers, Science, Engineering, and Technology ($10K Perkins Grant funds).


2017-2018 Highlights



  • As librarians are increasingly called upon to demonstrate the value of academic libraries and their contribution to institutional goals, the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) is responding with research and resources to support the profession in meeting this challenge. American Library Association, Association of College and Research Libraries http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/issues/value/imls_proposal_narrative11.pdf

ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN for 2018-2019 (FY19)


Gathering data helps the Library to count stuff so that librarians know where things are and where they are not.  See the Appendices for library’s statistics report and comparisons 2016, 2017 – at the end of this FY18 report.


Guided by data, analysis and discussion the library’s decision-making resulted in the following strategic goals:


  • Digital archives, digital repositories created by BHCC librarians (see 2014-2015 goals)
    • Continue to transform the Library's physical space to create an inviting, effective environment for learning, study and reflection (See 2015-2016 goals)
           ““The Library anticipates to advocate and continue the Library’s role in the
           scholarship of teaching and learning. Further, the Library anticipates to continue to
           support discipline-specific professional development in the English and ESL
           departments to develop pedagogical content knowledge; continue to provide
           leadership for Museum of African American History, Asian American Studies, and
           Latino Studies Institutes to spread research-based, learner-centered, culturally
           inclusive curricula and pedagogical practice across the disciplines; provide leadership
           for the Open Educational Resources (OER) Degree Initiative (see 2017-2018 goals). 
    • Continue to build Cooperation, Partnerships to Support the college’s Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (see 2017-2018)

BHCC Library & Learning Commons Shared Values

  • Commitment to the college and the library profession in keeping with the principles and guidelines developed by ALA and AACC for the purpose of advancing BHCC’s vision, mission and goals
  • Reasonable work for reasonable compensation derived from tuition and public funds
  • Cultivating an atmosphere of mutual and self respect where the values of integrity, civility and dignity
  • Clear communication and consistent reporting based in a belief in the value of disclosure and transparency
  • Engaged and present involvement in the day to day delivering and development of the library as a resource and service provider for the college
  • Belief in the work of libraries as worthwhile as something that makes the world a better place
  • Continuing awareness, interest and involvement in issues and concerns, innovations and challenges facing libraries and adult education
  • Well-rounded staff able to model healthy habits and practices

Appendix A   --       Library Mission Statement and Alignment with College Mission

"The mission of Bunker Hill Community College Library & Learning Commons is to support teaching excellence and diverse learning in the community college setting, and to provide facilities to support a variety of learners and learning styles; to provide library resources and services which support the BHCC community; to encourage academic achievement, student success, and lifelong learning; and to enhance the education environment."

Found at


Appendix B   --       Library & Learning Commons Timeline (see Newsletter attachment)


Appendix C   --       Current Databases

Academic OneFile
Academic Search Premier
Art & Architecture Complete
Artemis: Literary Sources
Axis 360
Biblioboard Library
Biography in Context
Biomedical Reference Collection: Basic
Boston Globe
Brittanica Online Public Library Edition
Brittanica Online Public Library Edition: Kids
Brittanica Online School Edition
Brittanica Online School Edition - Elementary School Edition
Brittanica Online School Edition - Middle School Edition
Brittanica Online School Edition - High School Edition
Brittanica Learning Zone
Brittanica Spanish Reference Center
Brittanica Spanish Edition: Escolar (K-8)
Business Collection
Business Source Premier
Chronicle of Higher Education
CINAHL Plus with Full Text
CQ Researcher
Credo Reference
ProQuest Criminal Justice
Criminal Justice Collection
Culinary Arts Collection
eBook Collection (from EBSCO)
Educator's Reference Complete
Environmental Studies and Policy Collection
Ethnic Newswatch
European Views of the Americas: 1493 to 1750
Expanded Academic ASAP
Facts On File Issues & Controversies
Facts on File Issues & Controversies in American History
Facts on File World News Digest
Facts on File World Geography & Culture Online
Ferguson's Career Guidance Center
Films on Demand
Food Science Source
Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia
Gale Interactive: Human Interactive
Gale Science in Context
Gale U.S. History in Context
Gale World History in Context
Gardening, Landscape and Horticulture Collection
General OneFile
Global Issues in Context
Health and Wellness Resource Center
Health Reference Center Academic
Health Source: Consumer Edition
Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition
Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Collection
InfoTrac K-12 Student Edition
InfoTrac Newsstand
Kids InfoBits
LexisNexis Academic
Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts
Literary Reference Center
Literature Resource Center (LRC)
MasterFILE Premier
MAS Ultra: School Edition
Medline via EBSCO
Middle Search Plus
Military & Government Collection
Natural Medicines Database
Newspaper Source
The New York Times
Nursing And Allied Health Collection
Physical Therapy & Sports Medicine Collection
Poetry & Short Story Reference Center
Points of View Reference Center
Pop Culture Universe
Primary Search
Professional Development Collection
ProQuest Criminal Justice
ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Boston Globe
ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Globe and Mail
ProQuest Historical Newspapers: South China Morning Post
History Vault
Civil Rights and the Black Freedom Struggle: Black Freedom Struggle in the 20th Century: Federal Government Records
History Vault
Women's Studies: Struggle for Women's Rights, Organizational Records, 1880-1990
Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection
Regional Business News
Religion and Philosophy Collection
Research in Context
Sage Publishing Online
Salem Press eBooks
Science Full-Text Select
Science in Context
Science Reference Center
The Serials Directory
Small Business Resource Center
SocINDEX with Full Text
Teacher Reference Center
Vocations & Careers Collection

Appendix D - GLOSSARY

Archives: 1. A space which houses historical or public records. 2. The historical or public records themselves, which are generally non-circulating materials such as collections of personal papers, rare books, ephemera, etc.

Bibliography: A list containing citations to the resources used in writing a research paper or other document.

Book: A relatively lengthy work, often on a single topic. May be print or electronic."

Book stacks: Shelves in the library where materials—typically books—are stored. Books in the book stacks are normally arranged by call number. May be referred to simply as the “stacks” in the catalog.

Call Number A group of letters and/or numbers that identifies a specific item in a library and provides a way for organizing library holdings. Two major types of call numbers are Dewey Decimal Call Numbers and Library of Congress Call Numbers.

Catalog A database (either online or on paper cards) listing and describing the books, journals, government documents, audiovisual and other materials held by a library. Various search terms allow you to look for items in the catalog.

CD An abbreviation for compact disc; it is used for storing digital information.

Check out: To borrow/rent/loan an item from a library for a fixed period of time in order to read, listen to, or view it. Check-out periods vary by library. Items are checked out at the circulation desk.

Circulation desk: The place in the library where you check out, renew and return library materials. You may also place a hold, report an item missing from the shelves, or pay late fees or fines there.

Course reserve: A selection of books, articles, videotapes, or other materials that instructors want students to read or view for a particular course. Print reserve materials are usually kept in one area of the library and circulate for only a short period of time.

Database: A collection of information stored in an electronic format that can be searched by a computer.

Download: 1. To transfer information from a computer to a program or storage device to be viewed at a later date. 2. To transfer information from one computer to another computer using a modem.

E-book (or Electronic book): To transfer information from a computer to a program or storage device to be viewed at a later date.

Electronic reserve (or E-reserve): "An electronic version of a course reserve that is read on a computer display screen.

F- Five Laws of Library and Information Science as given by Ranganathan:

The Five Laws of Library Science are:

1. Books are for use. 2. Every reader his or her book. 3. Every book its reader. 4. Save the time of the reader. 5. The library is a growing organism.

Ranganathan’s fifth law is equally my favorite. Yet, it cannot stand alone. Thus, to achieve the fifth goal ‘the library is a growing organism’ requires effective design, functionality, and planning with purposeful thought and organic leadership. Libraries may have changed form over the decades, but the need for a repository of knowledge remains. Now the repository is some physical place and increasingly digital, with more access and information resources available through high speed networks.

Hold: A request by a user to a library that a book checked out to another person be saved for that user when it is returned.

Holdings: The materials owned by a library.

Interlibrary Loan (ILL): A service that allows you to borrow materials from other libraries through your own library.

Internet: A worldwide network of computer networks that allows for the transmission and exchange of files. The World Wide Web is part of the Internet.

Journal: A publication, issued on a regular basis, which contains scholarly research published as articles, papers, research reports, or technical reports.

Journal title: The name of a journal. Journal title is one common search term.

Keyword: A significant or memorable word or term in the title, abstract, or text of an information resource that indicates its subject and is often used as a search term.

Lawfully Made: A term used to describe materials that are created in accordance with copyright law.  Items used with educational exemptions must be "lawfully made;" for instance, it is not legal to show a pirated copy of a film to a class.

LC Classification: Library of Congress Classification

A classification for library items that is used in the Library of Congress and many other libraries.  Library of Congress call numbers typically have one or two letters followed by whole numbers and decimal numbers.  The Library of Congress section of the Library is located on the ground floor (basement). For more information, see the Library of Congress Classification System guide.

Limits/Limiters: An option in many databases that allows users to restrict search results by criteria not related to the subject.  Common limiters include language, date, and format.  Since limit options vary by database you can ask a librarian.

Microfiche:  A micrographic reproduction stored on a film card; the card is approximately the size of an index card.  A microfiche is a type of microform.

Microfilm:  A micrographic reproduction stored on a reel of film; microfilm is a type of microform.

Microform: A micrographic reproduction of a book, journal, or other type of information source.  You must use a special piece of equipment, called a microform reader, to view the text.  There are several types of microforms, including microfilm and microfiche.

Monograph:  (a) A treatise on one subject or about one person. (b) A type of publication distinct from serials

(i.e. a book).

Multimedia: "Any information resource that presents information using more than one media (print, picture, audio, or video)."

Newspaper: A publication containing information about varied topics that are pertinent to general information, a geographic area, or a specific subject matter (i.e. business, culture, education). Often published daily.

Online Library Catalog: A computerized database that can be searched in various ways- such as by keyword, author, title, subject, call number, or other libraries.

Open Access: Literature or materials that are provided close to free or entirely free with no restriction through the internet.

Peer Review: The process by which scholarly articles and books are published.  The editors of peer-reviewed publications require authors to submit drafts of their work for consideration.  These drafts are then reviewed by experts in the field who evaluate them.  In considering articles for publication, reviewers assess the quality of authors' research as well as their contribution to scholarship.

Peer reviewed journal: Peer review is a process by which editors have experts in a field review books or articles submitted for publication by the experts’ peers. Peer review helps to ensure the quality of an information source by publishing only works of proven validity, methodology, and quality. Peer-reviewed journals are also called refereed or scholarly journals.

Periodical: An information source published in multiple parts at regular intervals (daily, weekly, monthly, biannually).Journals, magazines, and newspapers are all periodicals.

Primary source: An original record of events, such as a diary, a newspaper article, a public record, or scientific documentation.

Print: The written symbols of a language as portrayed on paper. Information sources may be either print or electronic.


 (a) A library service; reference librarians assist students and faculty with research and information needs.

(b) A department of the library

(c) An area of the library where the books in there reference collection are kept.

(d) A note or citation to a book, article, or other information source.

Remote access: The ability to log onto (or access) networked computer resources from a distant location. Remote access makes available library databases to students researching from home, office, or other locations outside the library.

Renew/Renewal: A lengthening (or extension) of the loan period for library materials.

Research Guides (LibGuides):

These guides are organized by discipline and, in some cases, class.  Library databases are located in the research guides.

Research Help: A service offered by librarians to current BHCC students, faculty, and staff.  Meet with a librarian to discuss research strategies and possible information sources for projects, assignments, papers, presentations, and the like.

Reserve: 1. A service providing special, often short-term, access to course-related materials (book or article readings, lecture notes, sample tests) or to other materials (CD-ROMs, audio-visual materials, current newspapers or magazines). 2. Also the physical location—often a service desk or room—within a library where materials on reserve are kept. Materials can also be made available electronically.

Search statement/Search Query: Words entered into the search box of a database or search engine when looking for information. Words relating to an information source's author, editor, title, subject heading or keyword serve as search terms. Search terms can be combined by using Boolean operators and can also be used with limits/limiters

Search or Search Strategy: The plan enacted to answer a research question.

Secondary Source: Presents or discusses information originally presented in another source.

Secondary sources: Materials such as books and journal articles that analyze primary sources. Secondary sources usually provide evaluation or interpretation of data or evidence found in original research or documents such as historical manuscripts or memoirs.

Serial: Publications such as journals, magazines and newspapers that are generally published multiple times per year, month, or week. Serials usually have number volumes and issues. The words journal, magazine, periodical, and serial may be used interchangeably.

Software: The programs installed on and used by the components of a computer system (or, hardware).

Stacks: See Book Stacks

Streaming: A service that allows people to watch movies or listen to music online without download (e.g. Films on Demand, Kanopy)

Style manual: An information source providing guidelines for people who are writing research papers. A style manual outlines specific formats for arranging research papers and citing the sources that are used in writing the paper.

Subject heading: Descriptions of an information source’s content assigned to make finding information easier.

Tertiary Source

A work based entirely on secondary sources, rather than on primary sources.  It does not contain original research, but instead summarizes research reported in secondary sources.  Examples include entries in reference books and chapters in textbooks.

Thesaurus: A list of terms which serves as a standardized or controlled vocabulary for identifying, locating, and retrieving information.

Thumb drive: A small portable device for storing computerized information. A thumb drive can plug into the USB (Universal Serial Bus) port of any computer and store electronic information.

Title: The name of a book, article, or other information source.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL): The unique address for a Web page which is used in citing it. A URL consists of the access protocol (http), the domain name (www.nmsu.edu), and often the path to a file or resource residing on that server.

User: A person who uses the library resources, services, or facilities.  Also called end-user, or a patron.

User ID: A number or name unique to a particular user of computerized resources. A user ID must often be entered in order to access library resources remotely.

Virtual reference: A service allowing library users to ask questions through email or live-chat as opposed to coming to the reference desk at the library and asking a question in person. Also referred to as “online reference” or “e-reference.

Wireless: The name given to any electronic device that sends messages through space via electric or electromagnetic waves instead of via power cords

World Wide Web: A network of information, as a part of the Internet, that includes text, graphics, sounds, and moving images. Also know as the Web or WWW or W3. It incorporates a variety of Internet tools into one method of access, such as the Web browser Internet Explorer, Safari, or Firefox.

Zip drive/zip disk: Devices used in the creation of compressed (or “zipped”) electronic information.

 For additional library terms and definitions, see:

•        Dictionary of Information & Library Management.  Janet Stevenson.  2nd ed.  London:  A. & C. Black, 2006.

•        Harrod's Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book:  A Directory of Over 9,600 Terms, Organizations, Projects, and Acronyms in the Areas of Information Management, Library Science, Publishing, and Archive Management.  Raymond John Prytherch, Comp.  9th ed.  Brookfield, VT:  Gower, 2000.

•        Libraryspeak:  A Glossary of Terms in Librarianship and Information Management.  Mary Mortimer, Comp.  Friendswood, TX:  TotalRecall Publications, 2007.

•        Multilingual Glossary of Terms.  Association of College and Research Libraries.

•        ODLIS:  Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science.  Joan M. Reitz.  ABC-CLIO.  2004-2012.

University of Southern California. General Reference and Research Sources http://libguides.usc.edu/libraryterms